HIV and Tuberculosis
People infected with HIV are more likely than uninfected people to become sick with tuberculosis (TB). Without treatment, as with other opportunistic infections, HIV and TB can work together to shorten life. Reducing HIV-associated TB in the United States and globally is a CDC priority.
TB In the United States
In the United States, among people with latent TB infection, HIV infection is the strongest known risk factor for progressing to TB disease. Fortunately people infected with HIV with either latent TB infection or TB disease can be effectively treated. The first step is to ensure that people living with HIV are tested for TB infection and undergo further tests if needed to rule out TB disease. The second step is to start treatment for latent TB infection or TB disease.
Globally, TB is the leading cause of death for people living with HIV. HIV has led to increasing TB incidence and mortality, particularly in high HIV-burden countries. HIV-associated TB threatens to undermine the progress made in TB and HIV control around the world. CDC is working to reduce TB and HIV prevalence and mortality in resource-limited settings by
- Conducting high-impact research and demonstration projects to implement, evaluate, and validate innovative TB and HIV control approaches;
- Providing technical assistance to resource-limited countries to guide design and implementation of TB and HIV programs; and
- Informing international policy.
Research activities primarily focus on intensified TB case finding among people living with HIV, isoniazid preventive therapy among people living with HIV, and pediatric TB and HIV.
HIV and TB Resources
- TB is the leading cause of death among adults living with HIV/AIDS. Late diagnosis of TB is a major contributor. A New Approach for Tuberculosis Disease Screening and Diagnosis in People with HIV/AIDS details the internationally accepted, evidence-based approach to TB screening and diagnosis among adults with HIV/AIDS.
- The International Research and Programs Branch Annual Report details global work focused on identifying, treating, and preventing TB among people living with HIV.
- The International Research and Programs Branch Overview summarizes several activities focused on reducing the impact of HIV on TB prevalence and mortality.
- TB and HIV Coinfection webpage provides patient and health care provider TB and HIV resources, including pamphlets, fact sheets, and brochures.