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ABCs Report: group A Streptococcus, 1997

Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs): Emerging Infections Program Network

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ABCs Areas

California (3 county San Francisco Bay area); Connecticut; Georgia (20 county Atlanta area); Minnesota (7 county Twin Cities area); Oregon (3 county Portland area)

ABCs Population

The surveillance areas represent 13,736,348 persons. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997

ABCs Case Definition

Invasive group A streptococcal disease: isolation of group A Streptococcus from a normally sterile site or from a wound culture accompanied by necrotizing fasciitis or streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in a resident of a surveillance area in 2012.

ABCs Methodology

Project personnel communicated at least monthly with contacts in all microbiology laboratories serving acute care hospitals in their area to identify cases. Standardized case report forms that include information on demographic characteristics, clinical syndrome, and outcome of illness were completed for each identified case. Strains were typed by the emm system at CDC. Regular laboratory audits assess completeness of active surveillance and detect additional cases.

All rates of invasive group A Streptococcal disease were calculated using U.S. Bureau of the Census postcensal population estimates for 1997. For national projections of cases, race- and age-specific rates of disease were applied from the aggregate surveillance area to the age and racial distribution of the 1997 U. S. population. Cases with unknown race were distributed by site based on reported race distribution for known cases within the seven age categories.

Reported ABCs Profiles

Race No. (Rate*)
White 355 (3.3)
Black 101 (5.5)
Other 30 (2.9)

Unknown race (n=56) distributed among knowns

* Cases per 100,000 population for ABCs areas

Ethnicity No. (Rate*)
Hispanic 35 (3.5)
Non-Hispanic 220 ------
Unknown 231 ------

*Cases per 100,000 population for ABCs areas

Citation

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Report, Emerging Infections Program Network, Group A Streptococcus, 1997.

Age (years) Cases
No. (Rate*)
Deaths
No. (Rate*)
<1 16 (8.3) 0 (0.0)
1 7 (3.7) 0 (0.0)
2-4 17 (2.9) 0 (0.0)
5-17 29 (1.2) 0 (0.0)
18-34 74 (2.1) 3 (0.1)
35-49 116 (3.3) 10 (0.3)
50-64 86 (4.7) 12 (0.7)
≥ 65 141 (9.2) 27 (1.8)
Total 486 (3.5) 52 (0.4)

*Cases or deaths per 100,000 population for ABCs areas

ABCs Area Most common emm types* % of area
isolates
California 1, 12, 114, 28, 33 58
Connecticut 1, 12, 4, 28, 77 66
Georgia 1, 12, 22, 3, 59 69
Minnesota 1, 12, 89, 3, 11 54
Oregon 28, 1 33
Total 1, 12, 28, 3 48.7

*Requires a minimum of 4 isolates

Syndrome No. (%)
Cellulitis 164 (33.7)
Necrotizing fasciitis 38 (7.8)
Pneumonia 55 (11.3)
Primary bacteremia 146 (30.3)
Streptococcal toxic shock 29 (6.0)

Note: Some cases had more than one syndrome.

Potentially preventable invasive group A streptococcal disease

During 1997, 4 cases (ages in years 2, 5, 6, and 27) of invasive GAS disease were detected in patients with varicella.

National Estimates of Invasive Disease

Cases: 9,700 (3.6/100,000)
Deaths: 1,100 (0.4/100,000)

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