Differences in Hospital Costs and Length of Stay Among Children with Down Syndrome
(Published: October 1, 2014)
Frequency of Trisomy Conditions using Birth Defects Tracking Programs.
(Published: November 21, 2013)
Key Findings: Opioid Use and Neural Tube Defects
Researchers found that mothers who used opioids in the first two months of pregnancy were two times more likely to have a pregnancy affected by an NTD than mothers who didn’t use opioids during pregnancy.
(Published: September 11, 2013)
Key Findings: Investigation of a Cluster of Neural Tube Defects — Central Washington, 2010–2013
From January 2010 to January 2013, this area of Washington had four times as many pregnancies affected by anencephaly, an NTD, than were expected based on the most recent U.S. estimates.
(Published: September 4, 2013)
Gastroschisis Increased from 1995-2005
(Published: July 15, 2013)
Key Findings: Describing Birth Defects
Public perception of birth defects terminology.
(Published: November 16, 2012)
Key Findings: Improving Newborn Screening
Follow-up in pediatric practices: Quality Improvement Innovation Network.
(Published: October 15, 2012)
Heart Defects Study
Heart defects across the lifespan.
(Published: February 10, 2014)
Birth Defects are Common
Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby is born with a birth defect.
(Published: January 13, 2014)
Pregnant? Don’t Smoke!
Quitting smoking can be hard, but it is one of the best ways a woman can protect herself and her baby's health.
(Published: November 13, 2013)
Newborn Screening: Saving Lives for 50 Years
How much do you know about newborn screening? Take our quiz to find out.
(Published: September 13, 2013)
Cleft and Craniofacial Awareness Month
A mother shares her son's story
(Published: July 1, 2013)
Birth Defects Quiz
How much do you know about birth defects? Take our quiz to find out.
(Published: January 22, 2013)
Living with a Birth Defect
Read about one family's experience with a birth defect, spina bifida.
(Published: January 15, 2013)
Cleft Lip & Palate: One Mother’s Story
In honor of National Cleft and Craniofacial Awareness and Prevention Month, one mother shares her story.
(Published: July 20, 2012)
CDC Website Spotlight Articles
The following articles were featured on the CDC Website:
Key Findings: Trends in survival among children with Down syndrome in 10 regions of the US
The journal Pediatrics has published a new study that describes how survival among people with Down syndrome has improved in the United States over time.
Key Findings: Hospital Use, Associated Costs, and Payer Status for Infants Born with Spina Bifida
About 18% of babies with spina bifida had more than three hospital stays initiated in their first year of life. The presence of other birth defects seemed to influence the length of stay in the hospital and hospital costs. A special issue of the journal Birth Defects Research (Part A) has recently released a new study online: “Hospital Use, Associated Costs, and Payer Status for Infants Born with Spina Bifida.”
Key Findings: Public Perception of Birth Defects Terminology
The phrase “birth defects” is well-recognized, yet concerns have been raised about its perceived negative connotation. A special issue of the journal Birth Defects Research (Part A) recently published a new study online: “Public Perception of Birth Defects Terminology.”
Key Findings: Use of topiramate in pregnancy and risk of oral clefts
Use of topiramate during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts (i.e., cleft lip with or without cleft palate) in the offspring. The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology has published a new study: “Use of topiramate in pregnancy and risk of oral clefts.”
Key Findings: Lack of Vitamins Containing Folic Acid and Diabetes-Associated Birth Defects
The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology published a CDC study: “Lack of Periconceptional Vitamins or Supplements That Contain Folic Acid and Diabetes Mellitus-Associated Birth Defects”.
Key Findings: Maternal Asthma Medication Use and the Risk of Selected Birth Defects
Researchers used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) to examine maternal asthma medication use during pregnancy and the risk of certain birth defects.
Key Findings: Influencing Clinical Practice Regarding the Use of Antiepileptic Medications During Pregnancy: Modeling the Potential Impact on the Prevalences of Spina Bifida and Cleft Palate in the United States
A special issue of the American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C with a specific focus on teratology―or the study of birth defects and their causes―recently has been published online.
Key Findings: Maternal Treatment with Opioid Analgesics and Risk for Birth Defects
The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology has published a new CDC study: “Maternal Treatment with Opioid Analgesics and Risk for Birth Defects”.
Maternal Smoking & Congenital Heart Defects
The journal Pediatrics has published a new CDC article: "Maternal Smoking and Congenital Heart Defects in the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study".
The journal, Human Reproduction, has published a new CDC study: "Use of clomiphene citrate and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005."
Birth Defects - New National Estimates
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Birth Defects Prevention Network have published a new study updating the national prevalence estimates for selected birth defects in the United States from 2004-2006.
CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report has published a new study: "Racial Differences by Gestational Age in Neonatal Deaths Attributable to Congenital Heart Defects — United States, 2003–2006.
Updated Estimates for Selected Birth Defects
Birth defects occur in about 3% of live births and are a leading cause of infant death. Tracking birth defects helps us understand trends and strengthen prevention programs.
Key Findings: Mortality Resulting From Congenital Heart Disease Among Children and Adults in the United States, 1999-2006
The American Heart Association’s journal Circulation has published a new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study entitled "Mortality Resulting From Congenital Heart Disease Among Children and Adults in the United States, 1999-2006".
Spina Bifida Prevalence
Pediatrics, the Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, has published a new CDC study: "Prevalence of Spina Bifida Among Children and Adolescents in 10 Regions in the United States."
Articles of Interest
*Articles are listed in order of date published.
Trends in Survival Among Children With Down Syndrome in 10 Regions of the United States.
Kucik JE, Shin M, Siffel C, Marengo L, Correa A; for the Congenital Anomaly Multistate Prevalence and Survival Collaborative.
Improved Survival Among Children with Spina Bifida in the United States.
J Pediatr. 2012;161(6):1132-7.
Shin M, Kucik JE, Siffel C, Lu C, Shaw GM, Canfield MA, Correa A.
Use of topiramate in pregnancy and risk of oral clefts.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207(5):405.e1-7.
Margulis AV, Mitchell AA, Gilboa SM, Werler MM, Mittleman MA, Glynn RJ, Hernandez-Diaz S; National Birth Defects Prevention Study
Racial/Ethnic Differences in Infant Mortality Attributable to Birth Defects by Gestational Age.
Broussard CS, Gilboa SM, Lee KA, Oster M, Petrini JR, Honein MA.
Maternal Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents and Congenital Heart Defects: Results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2002.
Occup Environ Med. 2012;69(9):628-35.
Gilboa SM, Correa A, Desrosiers T, Lupo P, Lawson C, Riehle-Colarusso T, Stewart P, van Wijngaarden E, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus-associated birth defects
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;206(3):e1-13.
Correa A, Gilboa SM, Botto LD, Moore CA, Hobbs CA, Cleves MA, Riehle-Colarusso TJ, Waller DK, Reece EA; National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
Racial/Ethnic Variations in the Prevalence of Selected Major Birth Defects, Metropolitan Atlanta, 1994–2005
Public Health Rep. 2012;127(1):52-61.
Kucik JE, Alverson CJ, Gilboa SM, Correa A.
Health Care Expenditures Among Children With and Those Without Spina Bifida Enrolled in Medicaid in North Carolina
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2011;91(12):1019-27
Cassell CH, Grosse SD, Thorpe PG, Howell EE, Meyer RE.
Influencing clinical practice regarding the use of antiepileptic medications during pregnancy: Modeling the potential impact on the prevalences of spina bifida and cleft palate in the United States
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2011;157(3):234-46.
Gilboa SM, Broussard CS, Devine OJ, Duwe KN, Flak AL, Boulet SL, Moore CA, Werler MM, Honein MA.
Congenital Heart Defects and Major Structural Noncardiac Anomalies, Atlanta, Georgia, 1968 to 2005
J Pediatr. 2011;159(1):70-78.e2.
Miller A, Riehle-Colarusso T, Alverson CJ, Frías JL, Correa A.
Medication use during pregnancy, with particular focus on prescription drugs: 1976-2008
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205(1):51.e1-8.
Mitchell AA, Gilboa SM, Werler MM, Kelley KE, Louik C, Hernández-Díaz S; National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
Associations Between Maternal Fever and Influenza and Congenital Heart Defects
J Pediatr. 2011;158(6):990-5.
Oster ME, Riehle-Colarusso T, Alverson CJ, & Correa A.
Preparing for influenza after 2009 H1N1: special considerations for pregnant women and newborns
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(6 Suppl 1):S13-20.
Rasmussen SA, Kissin DM, Yeung LF, Macfarlane K, Chu SY, Turcios-Ruiz RM, Mitchell EW, Williams J, Fry AM, Hageman J, Uyeki TM, Jamieson DJ; Pandemic Influenza and Pregnancy Working Group.
Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Coverage Among Pregnant Women: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011;20(5):649-51.
Ahluwalia IB, Singleton JA, Jamieson DJ, Rasmussen SA, and Harrison, L.
Stillbirths: the way forward in high-income countries
Flenady V, Middleton P, Smith GC, Duke W, Erwich JJ, Khong TY, Neilson J, Ezzati M, Koopmans L, Ellwood D, Fretts R, Frøen JF; for The Lancet's Stillbirths Series steering committee.
Maternal treatment with opioid analgesics and risk for birth defects
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204(4): 314.e1-e11.
Broussard CS, Rasmussen SA, Reefhuis J, Friedman JM, Jann MW, Riehle-Colarusso T, Honein MA; National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
Sensitivity of Birth Certificate Reports of Birth Defects in Atlanta, 1995–2005: Effects of Maternal, Infant, and Hospital Characteristics
Public Health Rep. 2011;126 (2):186-194
Boulet SL, Shin M, Kirby RS, Goodman D, Correa A.
Maternal Smoking and Congenital Heart Defects in the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study
Alverson CJ, Strickland MJ, Gilboa SM, & Correa A.
Patterns of antidepressant medication use among pregnant women in a US population
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;51(2):264-70
Alwan S, Reefhuis J, Rasmussen SA, Friedman JM, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
Use of clomiphene citrate and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005
Hum Reprod. 2011 Feb;26(2):451-7
Reefhuis J, Honein MA, Schieve LA, Rasmussen SA, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
Updated national birth prevalence estimates for selected birth defects in the United States, 2004-2006
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010 Dec;88(12):1008-16
Parker SE, Mai CT, Canfield MA, Rickard R, Wang Y, Meyer RE, Anderson P, Mason CA, Collins JS, Kirby RS, Correa A; for the National Birth Defects Prevention Network.
Maternal use of bupropion and risk for congenital heart defects
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 203(1):52.e1-6.
Alwan S, Reefhuis J, Botto LD, Rasmussen SA, Correa A, Friedman JM, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
Prevention and Management of Obesity in Non-Pregnant Women and Adolescents, Beliefs and Practices of US Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2005 to 2007
J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010 Sep;19(9):1625-34
Cogswell ME, Power ML, Sharma A, Schulkin J.
Prevalence of children and adolescents with spina bifida in 10 regions of the United States
Pediatrics; 2010; 124:1565-1571.
Shin M, Besser LM, Siffel C, Kucik, JE, Shaw GM, Lu C, Correa A and the CAMPS collaborative
Pandemic 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Illness among Pregnant Women in the United States
JAMA; 2010; 303(15):1517-25.
Siston AM, Rasmussen SA, Honein MA, Fry AM, Seib K, Callaghan WM, Louie J, Doyle TJ, Crockett M, Lynfield R, Moore Z, Wiedeman C, Anand M, Tabony L, Nielsen CF, Waller K, Page S, Thompson JM, Avery C, Springs CB, Jones T, Williams JL, Newsome K, Finelli L, Jamieson DJ; Pandemic H1N1 Influenza in Pregnancy Working Group
Racial Differences by Gestational Age in Neonatal Deaths Attributable to Congenital Heart Defects — United States, 2003–2006
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). 2010;59(37):1208-1211
Mortality Resulting From Congenital Heart Disease Among Children and Adults in the United States, 1999-2006.
Circulation. 2010 Nov 30;122(22):2254-63.
Gilboa SM, Salemi JL, Nembhard WN, Fixler DE, and Correa A.
Folic acid intake among U.S. women aged 15-44 years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006
Am J Prev Med. 2010; 38(5):534-542
Tinker SC, Cogswell ME, Devine O, Berry RJ.
Association Between Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Congenital Heart Defects
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology; January 2010; 202(1):51.e1-51.e10.
Gilboa SM, et al.
Prevalence of Down Syndrome Among Children and Adolescents in 10 Regions of the United States
Pediatrics; December 2009; 124(6):1565-71.
Shin M, et al.
Antibacterial Medication Use During Pregnancy and Risk of Birth Defects
Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medication; November 2009; 163(11):978-85.
Crider KS, Cleves MA, Reefhuis J, Berry RJ, Hobbs CA, Hu DJ
The Association Between Major Birth Defects and Preterm Birth
Maternal and Child Health Journal; March 2009; 13(2):164-75.
Honein MA, et al.
Assisted Reproductive Technology and Major Structural Birth Defects in the United States
Human Reproduction; February 2009; 24(2):360-6.
Reefhuis J, et al.
Predicted Contribution of Folic Acid Fortification of Corn Masa Flour to the Usual Folic Acid Intake for the US Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; January 2009; 89(1):305-15.
Hamner HC, Mulinare J, Cogswell ME, Flores AL, Boyle CA, Prue CE, Wang CY, Carriquiry AL, Devine O.
Diabetes Mellitus and Birth Defects
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology; September 2008; 199(3):237.
Correa A, et al.
Case-Control Study of Self Reported Genitourinary Infections and Risk of Gastroschisis, 1997-2003
BMJ; June 21, 2008;336(7658):1420-3
Feldkamp ML, eta l.
Use of Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors in Pregnancy and the Risk of Birth Defects
New England Journal of Medicine; June 2007; 356(26):2684-92.
Alwan S, et al.
Click on one of the following links to see a list of birth defects-related scientific articles from CDC authors:
Search a database of articles that have been published by CDC authors within the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from 1990 to present.
- Page last reviewed: October 20, 2014
- Page last updated: October 20, 2014
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