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Appendix C: Tables

Table 3. Intervention Characteristics

Study

Focus

Providers

Structure

Number of Sessions

Provider Contact Time

Barnett

2003

Exercise program to improve balance, coordination, strength, reaction time, & aerobic capacity

Accredited exercise instructors trained to provide intervention

Group exercise classes

37 weekly 1-hour classes

Classes: 37 hours

Campbell

1997

Improve strength & balance w/ simple home-based exercise program

Physical therapist or nurse

One-on-one exercise training at home

½ hour exercise program 3 times a week

 

½ hour walking 3 times a week

4 home visits: 1-hour each

Campbell

2005

Assess & reduce home hazards & encourage changes in behavior

Occupational therapist

One-on-one

 

1-2 home visits

 

Initial home visit: 2 hours

 

Follow-up visit: 45 minutes

Clemson

2004

Learn fall prevention techniques, improve self-efficacy, & make behavioral changes

Occupational therapist & team of trained content experts

Small group classes

7 weekly 2-hour classes

 

1 home visit 6 weeks after the final class

 

1 booster session 3 months after the final class

Classes: 14 hours

 

Home visit: 1 to 1½ hours

 


Booster: 1½ hours

Close

1999

Identify medical risk factors & home hazards, provide referrals & recommendations to reduce fall risk, & improve home safety

Physician & occupational therapist

One-on-one

1 medical assessment

 


1 home assessment

Medical assessment: 45 minutes

 

Home assessment: 1 hour

Cumming

1999

Assess & reduce home hazards

Occupational therapist

One-on-one

1-hour home assessment & follow-up telephone call

Total about 2 hours

Study

Focus

Providers

Structure

Number of Sessions

Provider Contact Time

Davison

2005

Identify & modify each participant’s fall risk factors

Physicians, physical therapists, & occupational therapists

Hospital-based medical exam & treatment followed by physical therapy & occupational therapy in-home assessments & risk factor reduction

2 hospital sessions

 

 


2 physical therapy visits

 

 



1 occupational therapy visit w/ 1 follow-up visit

Medical assessment: 1 hour

Medical intervention: 20 minutes

 

Physical therapy assessment: 45 minutes

Physical therapy intervention: 15 minutes

 

Occupational therapy assessment: 45 minutes

Follow-up visit: 20 minutes

Day

2002

Improve strength & balance, improve poor vision, & reduce home hazards

Exercise instructors accredited by State-recognized institute & trained for intervention

Group exercise classes

15 weekly 1-hour classes

 

Vision assessment &
treatment

 

Home assessment & modification

Classes: 15 hours

 

Vision management: NA

 


Home modification: NA

Freiberger

2007

Improve functional skills, strength, endurance, & flexibility

Specially trained instructors with a background in sport science & experience working w/ older adults

Group classes w/ individual practice at home

1-hour class 2 times a week for 16 weeks

Classes: 32 hours

Hornbrook

1994

Reduce risk behaviors, improve physical fitness, & reduce home hazards

BA-level assessor trained for intervention, health behaviorist, & physical therapist

Group exercise classes & home visits

4 weekly 1½-hour classes (incl. 20 minutes group exercise)

 

2 15-minute home visits

Classes: 6 hours

 



Home visits: ½ hour

Li

2005

Improve balance & physical performance

Experienced Tai Chi instructors who followed the classical Yang style

Group exercise classes

1-hour class 3 times a week for 26 weeks

Classes: 78 hours

Lord

2003

Increase strength, coordination, balance & gait, & improve ADLs

Trained exercise instructors certified for leading programs for older adults

Group exercise classes

1-hour class 2 times a week for 12 months (4 3-month terms)

Classes: 96 hours

Study

Focus

Providers

Structure

Number of Sessions

Provider Contact Time

McKiernan

2005

Using a traction device that fits on shoes to improve stability when walking on ice & snow

Research coordinator

Participants used the device on their own

1 introductory session

Introductory session: ½ hour

Nikolaus

2003

Assess & reduce home hazards

Home intervention team incl. 3 nurses, a physical therapist, an occupational therapist, a social worker, & a secretary

Home visits

2+ (usually 3-4) home visits, about 1½ hours each visit

Home visits: 8 hours on average

Rubenstein

2000

Increase strength & endurance, improve mobility & balance

Exercise physiology graduate students with on-the-job training or experienced physical therapist

Group exercise classes

1½-hour class 3 times a week for 12 weeks

Classes: 54 hours

Salminen

2009

Assess & address each participant’s specific fall risk factors, improve physical fitness, provide information & counseling on fall prevention, assess & modify home hazards, & provide psychological support

Geriatrician, trained public health nurse, trained nursing students, physical therapist, & various health professionals

One-on-one combined w/ group classes

1 fall risk assessment

 

1 counseling & information session

 

1 home assessment

 


12 1-hour health lectures

 

12 1-hour psychosocial group sessions

 

45- to 50-minute group exercise classes every 2 weeks for 26 weeks

 

Home exercises 3 times a week for 52 weeks

Risk assessment: 45 minutes

 

Counseling: 45 minutes

 


Home assessment: 45 minutes

 

Health lectures: 12 hours

 

Psychosocial group sessions: 12 hours

 

 

Exercise classes: 10-11 hours

Study

Focus

Providers

Structure

Number of Sessions

Provider Contact Time

Skelton

2005

Improve balance & strength

Postural Stability Instructors

Group exercise classes & home-based exercises

1 pre-exercise assessment

 


36 weekly 1-hour group exercise classes

 

½-hour home exercise sessions 2 times a week for 36 weeks

Pre-exercise assessment: 40 minutes

 

Classes: 36 hours

Spice

2009

Assess fall risk factors & provide individualized interventions

Doctor, nurse, physical therapist, & occupational therapist

One-on-one assessment with follow-up interventions

1 fall risk assessment

 

Length & number of subsequent sessions varied by type of intervention(s)

Risk assessment: 2 hours

 

Intervention: Varied

Tinetti

1994

Identify & modify each participant’s fall risk factors

Medication adjustments coordinated w/ participant’s primary physician; exercise sessions conducted by physical therapist

Varied by type of intervention

Varied by type & number of interventions received

Varied

Voukelatos

2007

Improve balance & reduce falls

Community-based Tai Chi instructors

Group exercise classes

16 weekly 1-hour classes

Classes: 16 hours

Wagner

1994

Reduce disability &/or falls by addressing 6 specific risk factors

Specially trained nurse-educator

Home visit with follow-up behavioral intervention

1 initial interview 1 to 1½ hours

 

Length & number of subsequent sessions varied by type of intervention(s)

Initial interview: 1 to 1½ hours

 

Intervention: Varied

Wolf

1996

Improve strength, balance, walking speed, & physical functioning

Tai Chi master

Group classes w/ individual practice at home

25-minute group classes 2 times a week for 15 weeks

 

15-minute practice at home 2 times a week

Classes: 12 hours

 

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