The working group thanks
Drs. Ida Onorato, Marc Bulterys, Harold Jaffe, Alan Greenberg, Patrick Sullivan,
Mr. Kevin Delaney, Ms. Marie Morgan,
Ms. Thena Durham and Ms. Susan Danner at CDC, Ms. Yolanda Olszewski at
the CORE Center in Chicago, Illinois, and Dr. Patricia Garcia at Northwestern
for their thoughtful review and contributions. The working group also
thanks the women who have participated in the focus groups, pilots, research
and rapid testing programs that have taught many lessons and demonstrated
the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of rapid HIV testing during
and delivery. The knowledge gained from, and the working group’s experiences
with, these projects were helpful in formulating our approach to this
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Suggested Reading, and Resources
- Office of
the Inspector General.
Reducing obstetrician barriers to offering
July 10, 2003.
- Wade NA, Birkhead GS, Warren BL, et al. Abbreviated regimens
of zidovudine prophylaxis and perinatal transmission of the human
immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med 1998;339:1409-1414.
- Shaffer N, Bulterys M, Simonds RJ. Short courses of zidovudine
and perinatal transmission of HIV. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1042-1043.
- Fiscus SA,
Adimora AA, Funk ML, et al. Trends in interventions to reduce
perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission
in North Carolina. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:664-668.
- Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming T, et al. Intrapartum and neonatal
single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention
of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: HIVNET
012 randomised trial. Lancet 1999;354:795-802.
- Moodley D, Moodley J, Coovadia H, et al. A multicenter randomized
controlled trial of nevirapine versus a combination of zidovudine
and lamivudine to reduce intrapartum and early postpartum mother-to-child
transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1. J
Infect Dis 2003;167:725-735.
Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant
women. MMWR 2001;50(No. RR-19):59-85.
- Bulterys M, Jamieson D, O’Sullivan MJ, et
al. Rapid HIV testing at labor and delivery: a multi-center intervention
study. National HIV Prevention Conference; July 2003; Atlanta,
Georgia. Abstract T2-G1103.
Approval of a new rapid test for
HIV antibody [Notice to Readers]. MMWR 2002;51:1051-1052.
Rapid point-of-care testing for HIV-1 in labor and delivery:
Chicago, Illinois, 2002. MMWR 2003;52:866-868.
U.S. Public Health Service Task Force recommendations for
use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-1-infected women for
maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV-1 transmission
in the United States. MMWR 2002;51(No. RR-18):1-38. Accessed
October 21, 2003.
- FDA licensed and approved HIV, HTLV and hepatitis tests. Accessed
July 10, 2003.
1998 Guidelines for treatment of sexually
transmitted diseases. MMWR 1998;47(No. RR-1):1-118.
- Sansom S, Jamieson D, Bulterys M, Farnham P, Fowler M. HIV
retesting during pregnancy: Costs and effectiveness in preventing
perinatal transmission. Obstet Gynecol 2003;102:782-790.
- OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test [package insert]. Bethlehem,
Pennsylvania: OraSure Technologies, Inc. Accessed
October 21, 2003.
HIV-1 Antibody Test [package insert]. Halifax, Nova Scotia: MedMira
Laboratories, Inc. Accessed
October 21, 2003.
- Capparelli E, Mirochnick M, Dankner WM, et al. Pharmacokinetics
and tolerance of zidovudine in preterm infants. J Pediatr 2003;142(1):47-52.
- The International Perinatal HIV Group. The mode of delivery
and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency
virus type 1. N Engl J Med 1999.340:977-987.
- The European Mode of Delivery Collaboration. Elective caesarean-section
versus vaginal delivery in prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission:
a randomised clinical trial. Lancet 1999;353:1035-1039.
- Working Group
on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected
Children. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral
agents in pediatric HIV infection. Accessed
February 2, 2004.
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Branson B. Rapid tests for HIV antibody. AIDS Review. 2000;2:76-83.
Bulterys M, Nolan ML, Jamieson DJ, Dominguez K, Fowler MG. Advances in
the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission: current issues, future
[serial online] 2002;2(4). Accessed November 14, 2003.
CDC. Revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing, and referral. MMWR 2001;50(No. RR-19)1-57.
Fowler MG, Simonds RJ, Roongpisuthipong A. Update on perinatal HIV transmission.
Pediatr Clin North Am 2000;47:21-38.
Grobman W, Garcia P. The cost-effectiveness of voluntary intrapartum rapid
human immunodeficiency virus testing for women without adequate prenatal
care. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181:1062-1071.
Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming T, et al. Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose
nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission
of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: HIVNET 012 randomised trial. Lancet 1999;354:795-802.
Institute of Medicine, National Research Council. Reducing the odds: preventing
perinatal transmission of HIV in the United States. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press; 1999.
Jamieson D, O’Sullivan MJ, Maupin R, et al. The challenges of informed
consent for rapid HIV testing in labor. J Women’s Health. In press.
Kourtis, AP. Prevention of perinatal HIV transmission: current status and
future developments in anti-retroviral therapy. Drugs 2002;62:2213-2220.
Kourtis AP, Bulterys M, Nesheim SR, Lee FK. Timing of HIV transmission
from mother to infant. JAMA 2001;285:709-712.
Minkoff H, O’Sullivan M. The case for rapid HIV testing during labor
[editorial]. JAMA 1998;279;1743-1744.
Mock PA, Shaffer N, Bhadrakom C, et al. Maternal viral load and timing
of mother-to-child HIV transmission, Bangkok, Thailand. AIDS 1999;13:407-414.
Mofeson M. Tale of two epidemics—the
continuing challenge of preventing mother-to-child transmission of human
immunodeficiency virus. J
Infect Dis 2003 ;167:721-724.
Walter EB, Royce R, Fernandez
MI, et al. New mothers’ knowledge and
attitudes about perinatal human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Obstet Gynecol 2001;26:495-500.
M, Demas P, Enriquez E, et al. Pilot study of expedited HIV-1 testing
of women in labor at an inner-city hospital in New York City. Am
J Perinatol 2001;18(1):49-57.
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CDC Perinatal HIV Prevention Web site.
current CDC perinatal HIV prevention programs, current CDC recommendations
and studies on perinatal HIV prevention in the United States,
and notices and summaries of national meetings of CDC perinatal HIV prevention
CDC Rapid HIV Testing Web
Includes frequently asked questions about rapid HIV testing, official
CDC and FDA releases, and studies on rapid tests.
Women and Children with HIV
Web site of François-Xavier Bagnoud
Center (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey) and Center
for HIV Information (University of California San Francisco).
Includes clinical information, training resources, and best-practice
recommendations regarding perinatal HIV prevention and pediatric
HIV infection. Resources for U.S. and international settings.
Project Web site.
Includes fact sheets, data sets, summary slides, a searchable database
of clinical trials, a resource directory, and a physician network
for expert discussion on treatment. Additionally, members will be able
participate in confidential and secure discussion boards; read
about real people living with, and successfully managing, HIV; download
tools; and receive a regular e-mail newsletter highlighting the
most up-to-date information about women and HIV infection.
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