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Pediatric Treatment Guidelines:
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

(For Clinicians)

One Page Pediatric Academic Detailing Sheets

These sheets are useful for conducting small group or one-on-one educational sessions. They have been used by many programs around the country seeking to change clinician prescribing behavior.

Practice Tips: Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Practice Tips

Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Target Audience: Clinicians, Health Educators, Infection Control Professionals, Nurse Practitioners, Nurses, Physician Assistants, Physicians, Pharmacists

Provides useful messages explaining the growing threat of antibiotic resistance and alternative treatment methods.

HTML version HTML version | PDF version [1 page]

Appropriate Treatment Summary: Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Appropriate Treatment Summary

Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Target Audience: Clinicians, Health Educators, Infection Control Professionals, Nurse Practitioners, Nurses, Physician Assistants, Physicians, Pharmacists (UPDATED AUGUST 6, 2007)

HTML version HTML version | PDF version [1 page]

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Cough Illness/Bronchitis: Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Cough Illness/Bronchitis

Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Target Audience: Clinicians, Health Educators, Infection Control Professionals, Nurse Practitioners, Nurses, Physician Assistants, Physicians, Pharmacists

Provides key information on the treatment of bronchitis and other cold illnesses.

HTML version HTML version | PDF version [1 page]

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The Common Cold: Rhinitis Vs. Sinusitis: Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

The Common Cold: Rhinitis Vs. Sinusitis

Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Target Audience: Clinicians, Health Educators, Infection Control Professionals, Nurse Practitioners, Nurses, Physician Assistants, Physicians, Pharmacists

When parents request antibiotics for rhinitis or the common cold, give them an explanation not a prescription. Provides information on treatment methods for common cold symptoms.

HTML version HTML version | PDF version [1 page]

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Otitis Media:Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Otitis Media

Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Target Audience: Clinicians, Health Educators, Infection Control Professionals, Nurse Practitioners, Nurses, Physician Assistants, Physicians, Pharmacists

Provides information on differentiating acute otitis media from otitis media with effusion.

HTML version HTML version | PDF version [1 page]

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Pharyngitis: Treat Only Proven GAS: Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Pharyngitis: Treat Only Proven GAS

Physician Information Sheet (Pediatrics)

Target Audience: Clinicians, Health Educators, Infection Control Professionals, Nurse Practitioners, Nurses, Physician Assistants, Physicians, Pharmacists

Provides medical data on viral vs. bacterial throat infections in children and the clinical procedures for distinguishing between each.

HTML version HTML version | PDF version [1 page]

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Publications - Principles for Pediatric Appropriate Antibiotic Use

  • Principles of Judicious Use of Antimicrobial Agents for Pediatric Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
    Dowell SF, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, Schwartz, B. Pediatrics. 1998;101:163-165.
    The guidelines in this article provide evidence-based principles focused on situations in which antimicrobial therapy could be curtailed without compromising patient care. The paper addresses five common upper respiratory infections that account for the majority of outpatient antimicrobial use: otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis, pharyngitis, and nonspecific upper respiratory tract infection.
    Abstract
  • Diagnosis and Management of Cough: ACCP Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines
    Irwin RS, Baumann MH, Bolser DC, et al: Diagnosis and management of cough: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest 1S-292S, 2006.
    These practice guidelines (1) more narrowly focuses the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of cough, the symptom, in adult and pediatric populations, and minimizes the discussion of cough as a defense mechanism; (2) improves on the rigor of the evidence-based review and describes the methodology in a separate section; (3) updates and expands, when appropriate, all previous sections; and (4) adds new sections with topics that were not previously covered.
    Cough Guidelines on the Chest website
  • Diagnosis and Management of Otitis Media with Effusion
    American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, and American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Otitis Media With Effusion: Otitis media with effusion. Pediatrics 113:1412-1429, 2004.
    The purpose of this guideline is to inform clinicians of evidence-based methods to identify, monitor, and manage Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) in children aged 2 months through 12 years.
    OME Guidelines on the Pediatrics website
  • Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media
    The diagnosis and management of acute otitis media. Pediatrics 131:e964-e999, 2013.
    This evidence-based clinical practice guideline provides recommendations to primary care clinicians for the management of children from 6 months through 12 years of age with uncomplicated Acute Otitis Media (AOM).
    AOM Guidelines on the AAP website [1MB, 38 pages]
  • Pharyngitis--Principles of Judicious Use of Antimicrobial Agents
    Schwartz B, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, Dowell SF. Pediatrics. 1998;101:171-174.
    Clinical findings cannot reliably differentiate streptococcal from viral pharyngitis. Many physicians overestimate the probability of a bacterial infection based on history and physical examination alone. Diagnosis of pharyngitis should be based on results of a throat culture or antigen-detection test with throat culture as a back-up. Accurate diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis and choosing appropriate antimicrobial therapy are important, particularly to prevent nosuppurative sequelae such as rheumatic fever.
    Abstract
  • Acute Sinusitis--Principles of Judicious Use of Antimicrobial Agents
    O'Brien KL, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber , MA . Pediatrics. 1998;101:174-177.
    This article outlines the strict criteria for clinical diagnosis of sinusitis. An accurate diagnosis is difficult, but critical because viral sinusitis is 20 to 200 times more common than bacterial infection of the sinuses.
    Abstract
  • Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis in Children Aged 1 to 18 Years
    Wald ER, Applegate KE, Bordley C, Darrow DH, Glode MP, March SM, Nelson CE, Rosenfeld RM, Shaikh N, Smith MJ, Williams PV, Weinberg ST. Pediatrics. 2013;132:e262-e280.
    This guideline provides a roadmap for physicians diagnosis acute bacterial sinusitis in children and determining when antibiotics are warranted. It is based on an analysis of the medical literature since 2001, when the previous version of the AAP guideline was published.
    Sinusitis Guidelines on the AAP website
  • Cough Illness/Bronchitis--Principles of Judicious Use of Antimicrobial Agents
    O'Brien KL, Dowell SF, Schwartz B, Marcy SM, Phillips WR, Gerber , MA . Pediatrics. 1998;101:178-181.
    Millions of courses of antibiotics are prescribed for children with acute cough illness each year, despite evidence that it is not effective. Evidence for the treatment guidelines recommended for cough illness/ bronchitis are presented.
    Abstract
  • The Common Cold--Principles of Judicious Use of Antimicrobial Agents.
    Rosenstein N, Phillips WR, Gerber MA, Marcy SM, Schwartz B, Dowell SF. Pediatrics. 1998;101:181-184.
    Unnecessary antimicrobial therapy for the common cold can be avoided by recognizing the symptoms that are part of the usual course of the illness. Controlled trial evidence is reviewed and presented to support the recommendations made in this paper.
    Abstract
  • IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Children and Adults
    Chow AW, Benninger MS, Itzhak B, et al: Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr; 54(8):e72-e112. Epub 2012 Mar 20.
    Evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and initial management of suspected acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in adults and children.
    Rhinosinusitis Guidelines on the IDSA website
  • IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis: 2012 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America
    Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al: Clin Infect Dis; Epub 2012 Sep 9.
    Evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and initial management of suspected acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in adults and children.
    Pharyngitis Guidelines on the IDSA website

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