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Consumers Home > Additional DES Resources > DES Bibliography > Psychology

DES Bibliography

 Women Prescribed DES While Pregnant
 Women Exposed to DES Before Birth (in the Womb), Known as DES Daughters
 Men Exposed to DES Before Birth (in the Womb), Known as DES Sons
 Third Generation (Offspring of DES Daughters or Sons)

Apfel RJ, Fisher SM. To do no harm: DES and the dilemmas of modern medicine. New Haven (CT): Yale Univ. Press; 1984.

Beach FA. Hormonal modification of sexually dimorphic behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1975;1:3-23.

Burke L, Apfel RJ, Fisher S, Shaw J. Observations of the psychological impact of diethylstilbestrol exposure and suggestions on management. J Reprod Med 1980;24:99-102.

Ehrhardt AA, Meyer-Bahlburg HF. Effects of prenatal sex hormones on gender-related behavior. Science 1981;211:1312-8.

Ehrhardt AA, Meyer-Bahlburg HF, Rosen LR, Feldman JF, Veridiano NP, Zimmerman I, et al. Sexual orientation after prenatal exposure to exogenous estrogen. Arch Sex Behav 1985;14(1):57-75.

Ehrhardt AA, Meyer-Bahlburg HF, Rosen LR, Feldman JF, Veridiano NP, Elkin EJ, et al. The development of gender-related behavior in females following prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Horm Behav 1989;23(4):526-41.

Fried-Cassorla M, Scholl TO, Borow LD, Strassman HD, Bowers EJ. Depression and DES exposure in women. J Reprod Med 1987;32(11):847-50.

Gustavson C, Gufstavson J, Noller K, O'Brien PC, Melton LJ, Pumariega AJ, et al. Increased risk of profound weight loss on women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero. Behav Neural Biol 1991;55:307.

Gutterman EM, Ehrhardt AA, Markowitz JS, Link BG. Vulnerability to stress among women with in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposed daughters. J Hum Stress 1985;Fall:103-10.

Hines M. Prenatal gonadal hormones and sex differences in human behavior. Psychol Bull 1982;92:56-80.

Hines M, Sandberg EC. Sexual differentiation of cognitive abilities in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) prenatally. Horm Behav 1996;30:354-63.

Kester P, Green R, Finch SJ, Williams K. Prenatal "female hormone" administration and psychosexual development in human males. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1980;5:269-85.

Lish JD, Ehrhardt AA, Meyer-Bahlburg HF, Rosen LR, Gruen RS, Veridiano NP. Gender-related behavior development in females exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero: an attempted replication. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1991;30(1):29-37.

Meyer-Bahlburg HF, Ehrhardt AA, Rosen LR, Feldman JF, Veridiano NP, Zimmerman I, et al. Psychosexual milestones in women prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol. Horm Behav 1984;18:359-66.

Meyer-Bahlburg HF, Ehrhardt AA, Feldman JF, Rosen LR, Veridiano NP, Zimmerman I. Sexual activity level and sexual dysfunction in women prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol. Psychosom Med 1985;47(6):497-511.

Meyer-Bahlburg HF, Ehrhardt AA, Endicott J, Veridiano NP, Whitehead ED, Vann FH. Depression in adults with a history of prenatal DES exposure. Psychopharmacology Bull 1985;21:686-89.

Saunders EJ. Physical and psychological problems associated with exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) [review]. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1988;39(1):73-7.

Schwartz RW, Stewart NB. Psychological effects of diethylstilbestrol exposure. JAMA 1977;237:252-4.

Vessey MP, Fairweather DVI, Norman-Smith B, Buckley J. A randomized double-blind controlled trial of the value of diethylstilbestrol therapy in pregnancy: long-term follow-up of mothers and their offspring. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1983;90:1007-17.

Yalom ID, Green R, Fish N. Prenatal exposure to female hormones: Effect on psychosexual development in boys. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1973;28:554-7.

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